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MAY 1941 



In Charge of Information and Publications 

The Pendleton, Oregon, round-up has been famous for many years for brilliance, 
audacity and versatility of its cow-puncher performers. Last year, (and in future 
years, we hope) it has added a new element of interest and significance. Henry Roe 
Cloud, Indian Superintendent at Umatilla Agency in Oregon, provides facts about the 
new Indian exhibit at Pendleton in an article on the inside back cover. 

The sulfanilamide cure for trachoma has received much attention in recent 
months but not more than it deserves. In the current issue of "Indians At Work" some 
world-wide aspects of this ancient scourge are discussed. Eleanor B. Williams of the 
editorial staff, performed exhaustive research .in uncovering and assembling the facts 
presented here. 

On the cover is a photograph of a full-blood Apache girl student at the 
Phoenix, Arizona, Indian School. The picture is by Frances Cooke Macgregor. 

The frontispiece by Frank Werner, is a photograph of Loretta B. Lineberger, 
Mohawk girl from New York State, employed in the Washington Office of the Indian Serv- 
ice. She is examining an Alaskan basket from the collection of 300 items recently pre- 
sented to the Department of the Interior by Mrs. Frona Wait Colburn. 

The back cover picture by Arthur Rothstein is seasonally appropriate. It 
shows Fred Hinkey, Paiute, loading hay to feed the tribal cattle herd on the Fort Mc- 
Dermitt Indian Reservation in Nevada. Through a cooperative hay enterprise and a loan 
of cattle, the Federal Government is assisting these Indians in their efforts to become 
economically self-sufficient. 

Another Rothstein picture on pa^-e 12 shows an Indian Service field nurse, 
Mrs. K. W. Raine, testing the eyes of an Indian school child at the Fallon Indian Res- 
ervation in Nevada. Health instruction and demonstration form an important part of 
Indian health improvement. 

J. Maughs Brown, Acting Director of Highways, submitted the article on the 
sign building program at Lac du Flambeau, which he received from J. C. Cavill, Super- 
intendent of the Great Lakes Agency. The article appears on page 18. 

A glimpse of Indian CCC "earning and learning" methods is provided in a photo 
by W. J. Mead on page 33. Hubert Richards, an Indian of Santa Clara Pueblo in New Mex- 
ico is shown here in what the CCC-ID calls "servicing" a piece of heavy excavating 
equipment which is being used on the cooperative Pueblo CCC work project. This seem? 
to mean greasing, at the moment. Mr. Richards is learning to operate this type of 
machinery, but before he is allowed to get into the actual operation, he must learn 
to "service" tne engine and various parts. In other words, modern CCC-ID methods re- 
quire the student-worker to learn to take care of machinery before he even learns 
to operate it. It's a system that works very well, judging by the great number of these 
Indians who graduate to important technical jobs, both in and out of the Government. 

Note To Editors: 

Text in this magazine is available for reprinting 
as desired. Pictures will be supplied to the 

extent of their availability. 

In This Issue \ J MAY 19 41 

Comments On The Contributions Inside Front Cover 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Mother and Child of Santa Clara Pueblo 

(Phogo by Peter Sekaer) 3 

Navajo Silversmith (Photo by Frances Macgregor) 4 

Navajo Woman (Photo by Frank Werner) 7 

Chippewa Woman Dresses A Deer Skin at Red Lake, 

Minnesota (Photo by Gordon Sommers) 8 

Dawn Heberto M. Sein 

Indian Affairs At National Conference of 

Soc ial Work , 10 

Lifting The Shadows 11 

Seneca Selected Member of Department of the 

Interior Committee 15 

For Summer Travelers in Northern Wisconsin 18 

The High Grade of Medical Care 19 

An Indian Artist In The Modern World 21 

Indian Trails Become Modern Roads 22 

Indians In The News 24 

Santa Ana Tribal Council in Session 

(Photo by Sekaer) 25 

Chippewa Woman Prepares Corn For Drying 

(Photo by Sommers ) 26 

Book Reviews : "Hawk Over Whirlpools" 27 

"Puyallup-Nisqually" 28 

"Linguistic Material From Tribes of South- 
eastern Texas and Northeastern Mexico" 28 

Indians of Zuni Pueblo (Photo by Werner) 29 

From The Mail Bag 30 

Class At Okreek Day School, Rosebud, South Dakota 

(Photo by John Vachon) 31 

Indians Conserving And Rebuilding Their 

Resources Through CCC-ID. T 32 

Pendleton Round-Up Includes Indian Exhibit Inside Back Cover 












After seventeen years, I revisited, last week, Paguate Village. 
Paguate is one of the several communities which make up the Laguna Pueblo in 
New Mexico. In 1922, accompanied by a Franciscan Father, I had entered the 
village amid an intense excitement. The historically famous Bursum Bill, 
sponsored by the then Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, had passed 
the Senate and was threatening the confiscation of the land titles of nearly 
all the Pueblo Tribes. 

How different the atmosphere of this recent visit! Paguate, amid 
a landscape which glowed like a rose-garden, lay wrapped in peace. I found 
the Governor, but not one of the other men was in the village. They were 
all off in the fields, mending the ditches, or tending the sheep at remote 
lambing-grounds. Paguate, by natural growth of population, had nearly 
doubled in size since 1922. Half of the adobe houses were new. 

In the interval since 1922, Laguna had done more than keep its 
lands. Land-holdings totaling nearly a quarter of a million acres had been 
recaptured through court action or obtained through purchase. 

The supposed limit of irrigation development had been reached at 
Laguna nineteen years ago. That limit has been pushed back, and each year 
some new water resources are discovered and are put to use. 

Laguna, in the period since 1922, has survived more than the 
threat of the Bursum Bill. Its range had been saved from critical erosion 
due to an excessive overload of sheep. The Pueblo accomplished its own 

stock reduction, voluntarily, and with an efficiency amounting to one hun- 
dred per cent. In fact, throughout the New Mexico Pueblos, the livestock is 
now down to the conservative carrying capacity of the ranges. 

At the Governor's house, it was Mrs. Saracino, the Governor's 
wife, who led the conversation. She was telling of the organization of the 
girls' school alumnae, founded some years ago, which, as the years pass, 
is coming to include all women in the village. This organization takes 
care of the sick and the needy, tends the graveyards, assembles and markets 
the crafts, maintains a community house, encourages the recreations of the 
village, and serves, without any continuing stimulus from the Indian Office 
workers, as a veritable dynamo of community enterprise and joy. 

Next morning, at Albuquerque, I found the officers of Laguna wait- 
ing at my door when I awakened. They had an interesting request to make. 
Five years ago, the Government had entered into a compact with the Lagunas. 
The Lagunas were to make drastic reductions of stock, and to reorient their 
range practices, and from its side, the Government was to install various 
range structures, employing Lagunas for the task. The Government in con- 
siderable measure had breached its part of the undertaking because appro- 
priations were withdrawn. The Lagunas had made good to the limit. 

It was not to complain of the Government's breach of compact that 
the Lagunas came to see me. It was to suggest that a new compact be f ormu- ■ 
lated, in which the Government's undertakings would be so readjusted that 
the Government would not be in a position of a treaty violator. They did 
not like the breach of compact by a sovereign state when they themselves 
were a part of its citizenship. 

-JC- -if- -K- -x- * ■«• * -* 

At the Navajo Tribal Council, discussion went forward for two 
days. Most of the sixty-two delegates spoke, always with earnestness but 
generally with humor too. Under discussion was the Tribal Council's own 
proposal that 60, COO sheep units should be taken from the range this year, 
and that all of the sacrifice should be made by owners of the herds in ex- 
cess of 350 sheep units. A number of the large owners, members of the 
Council, spoke. Not one of them opposed the project, and most of them ad- 
vocated it with great earnestness. When the vote came it was unanimous, 
both in favor of the gross reduction and in favor of the method which the 
Tribal Council had proposed. Navajos are highly individualistic people. 
That is as it should be. And they have a magnificent public spirit. The 
two qualities are not opposites. The best democracy is the willing action 
of individualistic people. 

Mother And Child Of The 
Santa Clara Pueblo 

Navajo Silversmith 

I quote from a memorandum sent in by H. W. Snipe, of the Exten- 
sion Division. There are few members of the Indian Service whom the field 
knows better or likes better than Mr. Shipe. The work of Elisabeth Hart, 
who died March 21, 1941 > stands as a classic of Indian adult education. 

"Salt River Indian School, Scottsdale, Arizona. 

"Elisabeth Hart has passed on to the Great Beyond. I have 
been told that her last coherent words, spoken in delirium, were, 
'I'm so tired - I'll just have to drive over to the side of the 
road and rest awhile. • And perhaps because of the lack of that 
period of rest she was not able successfully to combat the enemy 
that finally conquered her. 

"But what a monument she has left. 1 At her funeral today as I 
watched the long lines of Indian women, there were over two hun- 
dred of them, pass for a last look at the face of the woman who 
has meant so much to them and whom they loved and respected above 
any other, some of the thoughts expressed by Lincoln in the great 
Gettysburg address came to my mind: 'The world will little note, 
nor long remember, what we say here, but it can never forget what 
they did here. It is for us, the living, rather to be dedicated 
here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus 
far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated 
to the great task remaining before us that from these honored 
dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave 
the last full measure of devotion. ' All who knew Elisabeth Hart 
will appreciate with what little paraphrasing these words fitted 
the occasion. 

"And again come the words of that old saying: 'Line upon 
line, precept upon precept. ' That might well have been Elisabeth 
Hart's slogan in her work with the Indian women of the Pima juris- 
diction. By it she built a sure foundation which will endure as a 
lasting monument to her and a continuing blessing to the more than 
200 Indian women who were actively engaged with her in promoting 
better standards of living. 

"So much could be said, but you know her and you knew what 
she has built. The question now uppermost in my mind, as I'm sure 
it is in yours, is: who can take her place? Her work was laying 
a sure foundation - that has been done. The groundwork is laid - 
finished. What is needed now is a person who will fully recognize 
that fact and not be obsessed with the idea that the foundation 
laid by Elisabeth Hart needs remodeling of some sort before the 
super- structure can be built, or continued, successfully. Whoever 

takes her place should spend the first six months in learning all 
she can of Miss Hart's methods and getting acquainted with the de- 
tails of the work carried on by her, with the sole idea of contin- 
uing in her footsteps, with no idea of deviation therefrom. The 
Indian women will be quick to notice any changes and just as quick 
to evaluate new departures in comparison with 'the way Miss Hart 
did it' - and with all the intensity of champions of the one they 
loved so well. March 24, 1941." 


In the Rockefeller Chapel, at Chicago University. The congrega- 
tion filled the large church to overflowing. It was Pan-American Day. A 
spokesman of the Republic of Colombia told of the great Spanish past of the 
Western Hemisphere. The University High School choir sang a Peruvian chor- 
ale. The High Commissioner from India to Great Britain talked about world 
brotherhood. An ancient Jesuit prayer, compiled from early American manu- 
script, was read as an invocation. My own brief remarks were upon this 

Reverence for personality is the central value of civilization. 
This means reverence for the "other-self", and for the personalities formed 
by groups different from one's own and by races different from one's own. 
It means reverence for diversities of personality including diversities 
of races. 

It is out of the reverence for personality that the sentiments 
of liberty, justice, and brotherhood take their nourishment. When rever- 
ence for personality is cast aside, all the other values of civilization 
become weakened or extinguished. 

The present crisis of the world arises because certain aggressor 
nations have made effective a thorough-going denial of the rights of per- 
sonality . They have imposed this denial upon themselves, and they now are 
seeking to impose it on the whole world. But first of all they imposed it 
on themselves. 

Reverence for personality must go beyond mere tolerance. It must 
be an active enthusiasm, even a ruling passion, if the potentialities of 
life are to be realized within any society. 

And just as the aggressor nations have killed, within their own 
borders, the fundamental value of reverence for personality, so we within 
our borders could kill that value. It is the heart and soul of our civi- 
lized inheritance. It must be an active, not a passive^ virtue, if it is 
to survive now in the world. 

And one of the touchstones of Civilization is this: does the 
reverence for personality extend to peoples of other skin color, other 







.. ! 


language, other race, and differing customs? Most of all, does it extend 
to the peoples who have been called inferior and who are dependent? 

Reverence for personality is a controlling virtue among the In- 
dians, It is at the heart of that local democracy which is all but uni- 
versal among the tribes. The local democracy of the Indians enriches each 
personality with the nurture and the responsibilities of the community. 
It carries with it an active tolerance toward other religions, other lan- 
guages, other culture systems; it unites the Indian tribes with the whole 
human race. This value or virtue of reverence for personality is one of 
the gifts which the Indians, out of their centuries of oppressed life, can 
now offer to the Western Hemisphere and the world. 

$f~l~ &-&~~ 

^^ pAitimi e ci nna 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 


Their brown feet beat up the brown 

their brown hands made rows of warm 

their black eyes followed white 

of mason strings quivering in sun- 

their brown arms raised and laid 

of lustrous leaves of green MAGUEY. 

They hung vines of honey-suckle 
on rustic white -washed walls, 
with daisies and geraniums 
they framed square window holes, 
while barefoot Indian children 
scattered polished river pebbles 
like a mat before the door. 

On the summit of the hill it stood, 
a white school looking over corn- 
over rolling, waving cornfields. 

When fire-flies came flitting, 
they came out for dancing and for 

and sang into the scented air of 

till the echo climbed unto the moon, 
they danced under a thousand stars, 
danced till yawning hills 
stretched gauntly cactus arms 
into the eastern copper glow. 

On the summit of the hill it became 

clear and clean as growing c .irn, 
and white as white shirts drying 

on bushes, 
and rosy with lucent geraniums, 
and radiant with red garlands, 
it broke the sky, like a shout of 

joy ... their DAWN! 

- Heberto M. Sein. 



The Indian Affairs Forum as a special group associated with the Na- 
tional Conference of Social Work will have three sessions this year at Atlan- 
tic City on June 5th and 6th. 

The meetings scheduled are as follows; 

Thursday , June £, 2;00 - 3:30 P. M. General Topic, Arts and Crafts 
of American Indians . Rene d ' Ham one our t, General Manager of the Indian 
Arts and Crafts Board of the Department of the Interior, will speak on "Eco- 
nomic and Social Values of Indian Arts and Crafts." It is expected also to 
have a discussion of "The Place of Arts and Crafts in Indian Education." 

Friday . June 6, 2; 00 - 3; 30 P. M. General Topic, Indians and 
Modern Life . Jonathan M. Steere, President of the Indian Rights Associ- 
ation will preside. W. Carson Ryan, Head of the Department of Education, 
University of North Carolina, will speak on "Valid and Desirable Goals in 
Indian Affairs", and Katharine F. Lenroot, Chief, Children's Bureau of the 
U. S. Department of Labor, will speak on "Attainable Goals in the Welfare 
of Indian Children." 

Friday, June 6, £;00 - 5: 30 P . M. In vi'ew of the large place 
that missionary work of the churches has exercised among Indians along the 
lines of education, health and social service, this session will be devoted 
to a consideration of present-day needs and opportunities in this field. 
Dr. Mark A. Dawber of the Home Missions Council will preside at this se-s- 
sion. The subjects and speakers will be "A Modern Program for Indian Mis- 
sions", by Louise Strong, Yale -Brookings Fellow, Brookings Institution, Wa- 
shington, D. C. ; and "Changing Times and Changing Needs in the Navajo Coun- 
try", by Niles Carpenter, Dean, School of Social Work, University of Buf- 
falo, Buffalo, New York. 

There will be a registration fee of $3.00 for non-members of the 
National Conference or $1.00 per day for those who do not wish to register 
for the full conference. 

The program of the Indian Affairs Forum is in charge of an Execu- 
tive Committee of 26 in addition to the officers, who are Lawrence E, Lind- 
ley, Indian Rights Association, Chairman; Mrs. Ruth Muskrat Bronson, Office 
of Indian Affairs, Washington, Vice -Chairman; and Rev. J. B. Tennelly, Bur- 
eau of Catholic Indian Missions, Secretary -Treasurer. 



Steadily taking its toll in blindness, trachoma has long been one 
of the most baffling afflictions of mankind. Such ancient seats of civili- 
zation as Palestine, Greece, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Thailand, and French 
Indo-China have probably known it the longest time. Scientists say the di- 
sease is endemic over half the earth's surface. Accurate statistics are not 
available, but estimates of incidence range from one-third of the population 
of China, to 98 per cent of the Egyptian population. Nor is trachoma con- 
fined to the East and the Near-East. Thousands of fresh cases were recently 
reported in Germany. The disease is prevalent among the peasants of Poland. 
During the Spanish Civil War, two prominent British physicians protested the 
evacuation of 4-, 000 Spanish children to England on the ground that trachoma 
was widespread in Spain. Trachoma multiplied greatly in modern Greece with 
the influx of one and a half million refugees from Asia Minor in 1922. 


For years trachoma has occupied much of the time of Indian Service 
physicians. Half of the 70,000 trachoma sufferers in the United States are 
Indians, and its treatment has been part of the daily routine of reserva- 
tion hospitals and clinics. It was accepted by medicine as a "bacillus 

Drs. L. W. White, Fred Loe, and J. G. Townsend Plan Campaign To Eradicate Trachoma 

An Indian Service Field Nurse 

Tests The Eyes Of An Indian 
School Child, Fallon Res- 
ervation, Nevada 


granulosis", and the approved treatments ranged from operations which often 
scarred the tissue and permanently damaged the eyes, to external applica- 
tions of harsh medicines which sometimes arrested but never cured the di- 
sease. The treatment was often so painful that the patient might almost 
have said, "No thank you, I'll take trachoma." 

The Indian Medical Service, through its work with Indians, has 
made a scientific discovery that will not only relieve the suffering of 
their own people, but will eventually mean saving the sight of millions 
of people all over the world. Medicine has a responsibility for research 
as well as for treatment, and about eight years ago, the Indian Service 
medical staff began a serious campaign of experimentation with trachoma. 
For five years Dr. Phillips Thygesson of Columbia University, the late Dr. 
F. I. Proctor, and Dr. Polk Richards, Indian Service Medical Director in 
charge of trachoma activities, did experiments which proved that trachoma 
was caused by a virus. That changed the whole picture. It seems you can 
do things to a virus that you cannot do to a "bacillus granulosis." 


Dr. Fred Loe, Indian Service physician for 20 years, took two 
trachomatous Indians on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota and a sup- 
ply of sulfanilamide pills, and composed a little recipe. "Give the pa- 
tients one dose every day and await results." These first two patients 
had been treated externally for several years without improvement. After 
five days of daily sulfanilamide doses, taken internally by mouth, their 
eyes began to clear up. In a month they were discharged from the hospi- 
tal as "arrested." In October 1938 the Journal of the American Medical 
Association contained a preliminary report from Dr. Loe on his success in 
treating almost 200 trachomatous Indians with his now famous recipe. He 
reported that the average treatment needed only about two weeks, and that 
within twenty-four hours after the first dose, ailing eyes lost their aver- 
sion to light, inflammation disappeared, tears stopped coming. He had 
carefully checked his first patients over a period of six months and more, 
and in no case did the disease recur. 

"The ancient scourge" - the "dreaded eye disease" - "a loathsome 
disease" ranked with tuberculosis by United States Immigration authorities 
as one of the most serious excludable offenses - trachoma marches defiantly 
over the world. It rides on the wind, lurks in the dust, is nurtured by 
the sun. It stops to rest on dirty hands and dirty linen, and thrives on 
the intimate living conditions of crowded slums. 


Sulfanilamide, the magic drug, has apparently brought it to bock, 
and the Indian Service doctors may have thus entered the medical hall of 

Many of the sensational cures of trachoma which have been achieved 
in the Indian Service have been among school children who have been avail- 


able for continuous observation and treatment in the schools. The Indian 
Service is now putting more emphasis than formerly on the treatment of tra- 
chomatous adults and pre-school children. One of the first moves in this 
direction was the establishment of a camp at Warm Springs, Oregon, where, 
because existing hospital facilities are being used to capacity, 100 chil- 
dren and adults have been billeted in tents since April 16. Under the gen- 
eral direction of Dr. Polk Richards, one of the pioneers in trachoma re- 
search, the camp is staffed with Indian Service doctors and nurses, with Dr. 
Samuel Berger as Physician-in-Charge. Its program is educational as well as 
curative, for trachoma may strike in the same place more than once and the 
patients must be taught how to avoid re-infection. 

Eugenia Thompson, Full-Blood Chippewa, At 
Beginning Of Sulfanilamide Treatment. 

Eugenia Thompson After Two Weeks' 
Treatment For Trachoma. 


Seneca Selected Member Of Department Of The Interior Committee 

Miss Evelyn Pierce, a Seneca Indian employed in the Indian Serv- 
ice, has been designated a member of the Department of the Interior Welfare 
Committee to succeed Miss Edna Scott Smith, recently retired. 

Miss Pierce graduated from Carlisle Indian School, attended the 
State Normal School at West Chester, Pennsylvania, and also graduated from 
the Commercial Department at Haskell Institute, Indian Service school at 
Lawrence, Kansas. Miss Pierce began her work in the Indian Service as an 
Assistant Teacher and worked at Haskell Institute from 1914 until her trans- 
fer to the Washington Office in 1926, where she is now employed as Assistant 
Guidance Of ficer, helping with the task of recommending action on education- 
al loans, tuition payments and working scholarships of Indian young people 
desiring higher education. 

In connection with her membership on the Committee, Miss Pierce 
will act as treasurer for the Indian Office section of the organization. The 
Welfare Committee comprises a representative from each bureau of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior at Washington, to be nominated by the heads of the 
bureaus or offices and designated by the Secretary of the Interior. Loans 
from the Welfare Fund are made only to employees of the Interior Department 
located in Washington and are used in case of sickness, accident, death or 
some other emergency. Applicants must apply for loans in writing, stating 
the necessity for the request and what arrangements can be made for repay- 
ment. After investigation, the Committee member endorses a recommendation 
for its approval or disapproval and passes it along to another member of the 
Committee for similar endorsement. In addition to the above duty, the Com- 
mittee member keeps an accurate card record of all loans in his bureau. As 
representative member for the Indian Service on the Department of the Inter- 
ior Welfare Committee Miss Pierce will be charged with all these responsi- 
bilities. The selection of an Indian employee for this post constitutes one 
more evidence of the versatility and general competence of a race whose ap- 
titudes remained for so long unrecognized. 

Dr. Blauch Joins Office Of Education Staff 

Dr. Lloyd E. Blauch, who directed the comprehensive study "Educa- 
tional Service for Indians", by the President's Advisory Committee on Educa- 
tion, has been appointed senior specialist in higher education in the U. S. 
Office of Education. 

Dr. Blauch has directed a number of educational studies and has 
been associated with numerous public schools and colleges as teacher or su- 
pervisor. His report, "Educational Service for Indians", is available on 
request at the Office of Indian Affairs, Washington, D. C. 


An Apache Of Yesterday (On Opposite Page) 
And An Apache Of Today. 

A remarkable similarity. Na-Ka-Ah, on the opposite page, 
was known as Chief Yesterday. He was probably chief of a scouting 

Today, Apaches reveal unusual mechanical skills . The 
Apache operating the tractor above was employed on an Indian CCC 
project to rehabilitate lands on his semi-mountainous arid reser- 
vation, San Carlos, Arizona. 


For Summer Travelers In Northern Wisconsin 

When the thousands of tourists who annually 
journey to the Flambeau region in the heart of the sum- 
mer vacation land of northern Wisconsin, return to that 
spot this year a pleasant surprise will await them. 
For during the winter months, the Indians of the Great 
Lakes Agency have not been idle, but have spent their 
time improving the appearance of the landscape and pro- 
viding facilities along the roads for the comfort and 
interest of the motorists. 



One of the outstanding features of the pro- 
gram is the replacement of clusters of unsightly ad- 
vertising signs, with rustic directory signs. These 
signs, carved on heavy planks and brown in color, are 
mounted on large creosoted logs set up-right in the 
ground, and are on background shapes of canoes, arrow- 
heads, tomahawks, and wigwams. They are provided to 
mark all lakes, streams, waysides and places of public 
interest along the highways. 

Located in northern Wisconsin, where the 
winters are long and exceedingly cold, actual road 
building operations on the Lac du Flambeau Reservation 
are difficult to conduct during the winter months, so 
the Indian Service, in cooperation with the W.P.A. , 
sponsored the sign-building program, together with 
other road-side development and beautif ication activ- 
ities. Fifty men were kept working all winter getting 
timber for the signs out of the woods, and in the ac- 
tual construction of the signs. Dead and fallen trees 
were used as far as possible, and after being sawed 
and planed at the mill, were cut into the desired shapes 
and lettered with bright yellow paint. Ben Guthrie, 
Flambeau Indian, had direct charge of the work on the 
job for the Indian Service. 


All who have seen these developments have 
shown keen interest and many favorable comments have 
been received, especially on the new Flambeau-Boulder 
Junction Road, which has just been marked. This road 
winds among numerous lakes previously unknown to the 


motorist, as the locations were not marked and dense foliage obscured the 
view. An attractive rustic sign now marks the location of each nearby 
lake, and vistas from the road to the lakes have been cleared so the trav- 
eler may have an unobstructed view of the water. 

In addition to the signs, the attractiveness of the locality as 
a recreational area is being greatly increased by the construction of way- 
sides, or resting places, and picnic spots for the traveling public. At 
each wayside has been built a rustic picnic table, an out-door fireplace 
and a container for refuse. It is also planned to develop a similar system 
for public use along the lakes and streams. Picnic spots on public lands 
will be provided and overnight camping places on canoe routes will be de- 

The High Grade Of Medical Care 

That diabetes in Arizona is Just as common among Indians as among 
the rest of the population is one of the conclusions in a survey by Dr. 
Elliott P. Joslin, presented as the Frank Billings Lecture before the 194.0 
Session of the American Medical Association, in New York, and printed in 
The Journal of the American Medical Association, December 14, 194-0. 

Dr. Joslin, of Boston, has been clinical professor of medicine 
at the Harvard Medical School since 1922 and is an internationally-known 
authority on diabetes. He probably has contributed more to the knowledge 
of this disease than any other living individual. 

He compliments the medical corps of the Indian Service for as- 
sistance and cooperation in making the survey, in the following portion 
of his lecture: 

"In this field work among the Indians, not one particle of 
credit is due to me. All is due to the physicians in the In- 
dian Service, who cooperated in every way possible. I cannot 
say enough for that service, and I know whereof I speak, be- 
cause I visited Indian hospitals in Sacaton, Ganado, Fort Lewis, 
San Carlos and the Indian school and Indian hospital in Phoenix. 
By no means did I canvass all the Indians or go to all the res- 
ervations with their varied institutions, but I can say emphati- 
cally that I had most cordial responses from the Indian Bureau 
in Washington, its representatives in the West and individually 
from all the government agenc ies , . . 

"The high grade of medical care afforded Indians in Arizona 
by the United States Government is not sufficiently known, even 
among the physicians of Arizona. I cannot praise it too strongly, 
not only for what it is doing now, but for what I know has been 
arranged for it to do in the immediate future." 







Acee Blue Eagle, young Indian artist whose work is shown in these 
pages, is one of the group of Oklahoma Indian artists developed by Profes- 
sor Oscar B. Jacobson, Director of the School of Art at Oklahoma University. 
Mr. Blue Eagle has had a varied career. He attended Haskell and Chilocco 
Indian Schools, Bacone College and Oklahoma University. In the summer of 
1935 he lectured to a history class at Oxford University on "The Life and 
Character of the American Indian." While in England, he had an audience 
with the King and Queen (George V), who asked him many questions about "red" 
Indians as distinguished from the people of India. 

Almost as interesting as this royal visit was a visit to the 
Crippled Children's Hospital in London, where he told stories and per- 
formed Indian dances. The hospital superintendent told him that when the 
children were asked what kind of stories they liked, they always said "Cow- 
boys and Indians." Acee Blue Eagle was the real thing. He also went to 
Edinborough to call on the Mcintosh family, who share an ancestor with 
him, and he and the Clan Mcintosh had a family reunion. They exchanged 
gifts of Scotch plaid ties and scarves for "red" Indian moccasins and blank- 

After his summer in England, Blue Eagle returned to Oklahoma to 
direct the art department at Bacone College. He held this post for three 
years, then decided he would rather paint than teach and has been free- 
lancing since 1938. He has painted many murals in schools, hotels and pub- 
lic buildings, chief ly in Oklahoma. His smaller works are scattered over the 
country. He has also done a mural "The Buffalo Hunt" in the library of the 
United States battleship " Oklahoma . " 



(Editor's Note: This article is a digest of a story which 
appeared in a recent issue of The Highway Magazine. It was pre- 
pared by Grace Kirkpatrick in collaboration with the Information 
Office and the Roads Division of the Indian Service.) 

While America was still a wilderness, a far-flung network of 
paths pushed into deep forests and bordered turbulent rivers. They were 
the hunting trails and the war trails of the Indians. By comparing a 
chart of these old Indian paths with a modern road map, you will find that 
the two coincide to a remarkable degree. Our modern highways were traced 
hundreds of years ago by moccasin-clad feet racing to beating tom-toms; 
by slower feet returning from the hunt. Over these Indian roads, civi- 
lization pushed its way and crowded the red man back from his roads, a- 
way from the rivers, onto reservations. The only trails left to the In- 
dians were the dusty roads of the reservations. The broad roads of speed 
were the white man's. 


With the exception of the tribes of the far northern parts of 
Canada, who were the pioneers of fast travel with their swift dog sleds, 
the Indians of North America had to walk or travel by boat until the Span- 
iards introduced the horse. They were not discouraged by the lack of 
beasts of burden, but covered the entire continent with a network of 
trails over which they ran long distances with phenomenal speed and en- 

The Athapascan Indians were great travelers; so also were the 
Sioux and other tribes of the Great Plains, and to a lesser degree the 
Muskhogean; while the Algonquins journeyed from the extreme east of the 
United States to Montana in the west, and from the headwaters of the Sas- 
katchewan to the Gulf of Mexico. 


Now the Indian trails have gone modern. Good roads for In- 
dians are being built by the Indians themselves. Three purposes are be- 
ing accomplished; Indian boys and men are being taught a good trade; the 
worker is being paid in accordance with his ability and is acquiring much 
in self-respect and confidence; and Indian families and homes, as well 
as entire reservations, are reaping the benefit of having good roads - 
that is, better business and living, and improved outside contacts. 

Although the Indian Service has long been responsible for the 
construction of roads on Indian reservations, it was not until 1933 that 


a Roads Division was established as a separate unit. Formerly, reserva- 
tion roads came under the supervision of the Forestry Division and were 
constructed either through contract with an outside company or by the Indian 
Service. Now, road construction is entirely within the Indian Service. 


Reservation roads connect important centers, towns, schools, new 
industrial developments such as sawmills, canning factories. Some do not 
follow the old historic ways, but open up heretofore inaccessible regions. 
Last year 571»5 miles of new roads were graded, and 468.3 miles were sur- 
faced. 102 new bridges were built and 2,056 culverts installed. In ad- 
dition, 6,738.9 miles of road 
were maintained, while 506 
bridges were replaced. 

Indian Service appro- 
priations for roads amounted to 
$3,023,4-57 for the last fiscal 
year. In addition, contributed 
funds amounted to $785,891. 
Sometimes the tribal councils 
contribute money for roads, 
sometimes it is to the advan- 
tage of the states or nearby 
towns to support road construc- 
tion. A considerable sum has 
also been contributed by WPA. 

"The life of the road 
is the life of the nation: if 
new hopes are rising then you 
will see new roads building." 
This quotation holds true of 
the Indian race, where the 
roads they are building are 
making it easier for field 
nurses to make their rounds; 
where children can more easily 
get to school; and where great- 
er numbers can gather for the 
old ceremonials that help pre- 
serve tribal ties intact and 
save the history and traditions 
of a people. 

Charlie Lowery Operates A 
Jackhammer, Preparatory To 
Building A New Road On The 
Pyramid Lake Reservation 
In Nevada. 

^^ 4te 


Indians' In the News 

Dr. Ales Hrdlicka of the United States National Museum, at the annual dinner 
of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, told fellow scientists that 
Alaska was America's original melting pot. One may trace the unity of the existing 
Eskimo population with the dark-skinned Asiatics who live on the other side of the Ber- 
ing Strait, and there can be found traces of ancient people who resemble the Siouxian 
Indians of the present-day western United States. In prehistoric times there were sev- 
en distinct racial groups in Alaska instead of only two as at present, Dr. Hrdlicka 
said. Each of the seven differed physically as much from the other six as the Eskimo 
and Indian populations of Alaska do today. Each also had its own distinctive culture. 
Underlying the cultural differences there was a basic unity. This must be expected, 
Dr. Hrdlieka said, because the way of living of these people had to be much the same. 
All seven of the vanished peoples were hunting and fishing folk who lived mainly along 
the coast, so that they had similar problems to face and similar means for solving 
them. Present-day Eskimos are not completely homogenous, so far as physical traits 
go, Dr. Hrdlicka pointed out. In physical measurements and especially in size and 
shape of skull bones, the Eskimos of southwestern Alaska differ slightly but quite 
distinctly from those of the northern groups. Baltimore , Maryland . The Sun . 4/8/ 41. 

Albert, 26-year-old Zuni Indian rain priest, has been given a deferred class- 
ification under selective service. Fellow tribesmen appeared before the local draft 
board to plead that Albert's services were needed at Zuni to bring rain not only for 
their semi-arid western New Mexican reservation, but for the whole world. The board 
held that the rain priest was entitled to the same consideration given ministers of 
other religions. Albuquerque , New Mexico . The Tribune . 1/2 4/ 41 . 

Nancy Wak Wak, an 18-year-old American Indian girl, is writing a weekly news- 
paper column for the Toppenish, Washington, Review . She is the great-granddaughter of 
Chief Kamaiakan and is planning to do a biography of him at some future time. The 
United Press . 

"Legends of the Mighty Sioux," a book prepared by the South Dakota writer's 
project, will be published for national distribution by Albert Whitman &. Company of 
Chicago. This announcement has been made by the English Department of the State Uni- 
versity, official sponsor of the State-wide writers' project. Written by M. L. Reese, 
the book will include more than fifty legends and stories of the Sioux people. Bright- 
ly colored Sioux designs and symbols, with keys of explanation will decorate the book. 
Material was obtained through extensive research conducted on the various Sioux Indian 
reservations in South Dakota and the legends checked by tribal councils and national 
authorities on Indian affairs. Rapid City , South Dakota . The Journal . 4/3//J- . 

A new organization, The Native Redmen of Hollywood, a group of UU men and 
women of American Indian blood who make their living in motion pictures, has been 
formed. The object of the organization is to preserve and study the intertribal sign 
language, facial decorations, tepee painting. From among their membership, technical 
advisors will be chosen for pictures about Indians. The Associated Press . 

LONDON - Eagle feathers from the United States have been awarded to a small 
group of Royal Air Force pilots especially distinguished in air combat against Brit- 
ain's foes, as Indian symbols of courage. The feathers were sent for that purpose by 
the Indian Council Fire of Chicago, headed by Chief Whirling Thunder. Chicago , Illi- 
nois. The Tribune. 3/24/U. 


With the Government giving more attention to irrigation than ever in the his- 
tory of the country as far as South Dakota is concerned, now is the time for individuals 
living in affected areas of the State to give helping hands. Many efforts have been ez- 
erted to make farmers of the State self-supporting, but irrigation seems to be the sal- 
vation. 28,000 acres are under irrigation along the Grand River and a smaller irrigation 
project has been made possible for farmers in the Cedar River Area. "The Indian Depart- 
ment is very much interested in the Blue Horse Dam and is willing to lend every effort 
to further the plans." Mcintosh , South Dakota . Corson County News . ( Editorial ) 3/20//U- . 

Apparently, United States fashions can find inspiration at home. Modern cos- 
tumes incorporating American Indian design, are part of the exhibit of United States 
Indian Art being shown at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Costumes have al- 
ready been designed from the exhibit and may soon enliven the New York fashion show. 
They include Navajo buttons, Pawnee Indian ribbon work and Osage beading and braid. 
Albuquerque , New Mexico . The Journal . 3/20/4-1 . 

Recognition of Indian culture in Mexican living today is the key to America's 
understanding of Mexico and her people despite the Spanish conquest, the miring of races 
and the centuries of exploitation by the white people, Dr. Henry M. Willard, author and 
lecturer recently declared at Boston University in a series of public lectures by con- 
temporary writers, sponsored by the University's School of Education. "Revival of the 
old Indian culture in recent years in Mexico has resulted in a return of the Indian 
philosophy of fatalism, common living and communal holding of land," Dr. Willard said. 
"The inherent strength of Indian character and philosophy has again become a dominant 
factor in Mexican life," declared Dr. Willard. Boston, Mass. The Herald. 3/23/U. 

Santa Ana Tribal Council In Session 

A Chippewa Woman Of Minnesota Nett Lake 
Reservation Prepares Corn For Drying. 
The Ears Are Tied Together With Buckskin 
Thongs And Hung To Dry On Log Rafters. 


An Indian Story By An Anthropologist 

Hawk Over Whirlpools , by Ruth Underhill. Published by J. J. Augustin, Hew 
York City. $2.50. 

Hawk Over Whirlpools is a novel about Indians, told from the Indian point 
of view. Its events are played against a minutely painted background of desert life 
and the well meaning white people who pass now and then across its stage look now 
fantastic, now futile, as seen through eyes used to different values from theirs. 

The story begins some decades ago, when one remote southwe stern tribe first 
felt its culture shadowed by the oncoming white man and his works. The main char- 
acter is an Indian youth, Rafael, whose sacred and secret name is Hawk Over Whirl- 
pools. As the most intelligent boy of his village, he was the first one chosen to 
receive the benefits of education at the huge Government boarding school whose plan, 
according to the ideals of those days, was to make a little white man of him. Rafael, 
heir to a priestly line, was eager to receive the "white man's power." But he ex- 
pected also that one day he would have that vision which came to seekers among his 
own people, giving them courage and direction for their lives. He achieved neither. 
The cheerful, conscientious teachers at school gave him nothing that he could use. 
Eight years of football, classrooms, and finally a factory job, had destroyed his 
capacity for visions. Bankrupt, Rafael turned back to the desert. 

It is at this point that the main story really begins. Most stories about 
Indians are apt to end with the return to the reservation of the principal charac- 
ter, while Ruth Underbill's novel has the distinction of getting into full swing at 
the moment when her hero returns to his native village - the moment when the funda- 
mental problems of acculturation actually show themselves. Rafael soon learns that 
the white man has already encroached upon the old life and customs of his people, 
that a Government school is to be built close at hand. This discovery, added to the 
shameful memory of his own demoralizing experiences at such a school, provides the 
leaven which violently ferments the young man's hatred of the white man and all his 
works. It distorts and warps Rafael's evaluation of his fellow tribesmen, and sets 
off a chain of events which move the story swiftly and unfalteringly forward to the 
climax. The final chapters narrowly escape a sort of kinship with the inevitability 
which marks the Greek tragedies. Given the background, the psychological basis of 
the characters who live through the events of the story, the thinking and the ac- 
tions of the chief protagonist could not well be different. The effect of wage-earn- 
ing on the young men of the village, the apparently uncertain, frequently changed plans 
of the whites, their faltering accomplishment, the swift breakdown of native customs 
in the face of contacts with the whites, all add poison to Rafael's tortured soul and 
fuel to his angry fire. Only a remaining solidarity of the Indian group prevents the 
young men from being turned over to the white authorities when he commits acts of ag- 
gression against them. 

The author has, perhaps wisely, shouldered aside the complete doom of Rafael 
and his village which the reader has been led to expect. She has introduced a sort 
of deus ex machina in the person of a schoolmaster who has the kind of intelligence 
and imagination which can foresee the possibility of a gradual amalgamation of the 
best elements from both the white and the Indian cultures. It is to the author's cred- 
it that she has motivated her quasi-happy ending by vouchsafing to Rafael the equiva- 
lent of a vision such as certain men of Lizard in the Rocks have experienced from time 
immemorial at the end of a self-inflicted period of privation and mental punishment. 
Such visions provide power and guidance for the future. Rafael's present vision not 
only restores his confidence in himself as an Indian, but also makes it possible for 
him to understand and accept the schoolmaster's white man's vision of a time to come 
when conflicts of culture have been adjusted. 

Although Ruth Underhill is a social anthropologist, it is worthy of npte 
that she has restrained what might have been a very natural inclination to overburden 


the story with learned anthropological data. On the contrary the abundance and the 
accuracy of the author 1 s. personal knowledge of Papago Indian life has enriched the 
text without rendering it pedantic. The style is keyed to the best in modem novel 
writing and entirely escapes the pitfalls which so often beset the path of a speci- 
alist who attempts the techniques of the novel. 

The author has introduced the reader to a group of Indian characters and 
has unfolded a tale about them in their own environment, which nevertheless makes fas- 
cinating reading for people who know nothing about Indians and their problems. The 
story is intriguing from chapter to chapter through a crescendo of human emotions to 
the very end. The background is carefully pictured and the actors in the drama are 
human and living so that their race and creed form no block to the reader's interest. 
For those who have some familiarity with Indian life, and for those who are personally 
concerned in helping to locate the unknown quantities in the acculturation of races, 
Hawk Over Whirlpools should certainly find a place on their list of reading matter 
for this spring. By Homer H. Howard . 

Ethnological Studies In The Northwest. 

The Puyallup - Nisqually , by Marian W. Smith, Columbia Contributions to An- 
thropology, Vol. 32, Columbia University Press, New York. 

This very readable monograph on the ethnology of the Puyallup-Nisqually con- 
cerns the Coast Salish Indians of southern Puget Sound, Washington. The name comes 
from two river systems along which these Salish lived, and from the two reservations 
upon which they were later settled. The old culture which is described is now gone, 
and the Indians with the exception of a small group of Nisqually now on their res- 
ervations, live among and almost identically like the whites of this region of Wash- 

The early Puyallup lived a life closely related to the river and sea; the 
Nisqually were more related to the land. In early historic times, the latter group 
acquired the horse which modified their life further from that of their coastal neigh- 
bors. Although these people fell within the Northwest Coast culture area and spoke 
one language, there were many variations both in customs and speech not only between 
the two groups, but between closely situated villages of a single group. 

It is interesting to find that when these people took allotments within the 
small confines of their reservation, they chose and settled on land which would allow 
them to continue the close adaptation to environment which they had formerly made. 
The "salt water" people kept to the shores of the bay, the "river people" settled 
above the river mouth, and the "inland people" kept close to the open lands and the 
foothill hunting groups. 

This study deals very slightly, however, with the contemporary descendants 
of their acculturation. An account of this is given in "Acculturation in Seven Amer- 
ican Indian Tribes", reviewed in the February issue of "Indians At Work." This vol- 
ume deals with the aboriginal religion, economic and social life, the life cycle, 
games, foods and technology. By Gordon Macgregor . 

Language Of Four Vanished Groups 

" Linguistic Material from the Tribes of Southern Texas and Northeastern Mex- 
ico. " by John R. Swanton. Bulletin #127, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American 

All the known remnants of the languages of four extinct peoples are collected 
here from published and unpublished sources. The Coahuiltecans, Karankawans, Taumali- 
pecans, and Janambrians were Texas tribes of wandering and cannibal Indians who were 
met by Spanish explorers of the 17th century. They were small bands, probably quite 
primitive, unfitted to survive contact with their white conquerors. 

There is a historical sketch, followed by a technical discussion of phonetics. 
The major portion of the book consists of a vocabulary of Indian words used by these 
tribes, with their English and sometimes Spanish equivalents. 


from the A fail Bag 

Dear Sir: 

Oklahoma Inter- Agency Conference 

March 20, 1941. 

On the evening of March 18, the Oklahoma Inter-Agency Conference had dinner togeth- 
er at the YWCA with the entire program devoted to Indian matters. 

The Inter-Agency Conference is a local organization here in the State, made up of 
practically every Federal and State agency working in Oklahoma, having to do with re- 
lief, employment, health, etc. The present Chairman is connected with the State De- 
partment of Public Welfare. The Conference meets twice a month and serves as a sort 
of clearing house for activities. It has developed coordination and cooperation among 
the agencies represented and it has been particularly useful in acquainting each agency 
with what others are doing. 

At the meeting Tuesday evening, the tables were decorated with fine pieces of In- 
dian craft work. The program consisted of talks on Indian Service activities. The 
speakers included Messrs. Bernard of the Roads Division, Wattson of Extension, Jones 
of CCC-ID, Dr. Gillick of the Health Division, and myself. Mr. Don Whistler spoke on 
the radio program, Indians-For-Indians Hour, and Mrs. Eula Looney, in Indian costume, 
spoke on the Indian Arts and Crafts WPA Project. An excellent musical program was giv- 
en by two young men from the State University, Scott Tonemah and Alfred Kodahseet, both 
full-blood Kiowa Indians, who sang several selections interpreted in the Indian lan- 
guage, and presented several beautiful dances. 

Very Sincerely, 

A. C. Monahan, Regional Coordinator. 

From The Sioux Country 

Granite Falls, Minnesota 
November 14, 1940. 
Dear Sir: 

I am writing this to congratulate the administration and the Indian Bureau on t h e 
fine program which is being carried out for the benefit of the Indians. 

I am well-acquainted with all the eastern bands of Sioux and have watched their 
economic, moral and physical decline for the past 50 years, which was caused in great 
part by the allotment system. I am particularly well-acquainted with the new Upper 
Sioux group. At home we always call this group Pejihutazizi or Yellow Medicine. 

About 1888 several families of old people came back here to their own country which 
they loved and secured small tracts of land along the Minnesota River for homes. These 
tracts were bought from white men outright and there was no restriction on alienation. 
Many times they lost their homes to unscrupulous white men for a little or nothing. 
Many times they signed legal documents knowing nothing of the contents. 

They managed to make a living by hunting, gardening, digging ginseng and worked 
among white people or selling wild fruit. But as these resources became more re- 
stricted, times became harder and harder for them. Also the drought of the last 10 
years was hard on them. Of course, by now all the old people who had returned from 
exile are dead, but there is a younger generation taking their places, many young 
couples with families. 

Just as things were getting to be most difficult for them, came the Indian Reor- 
ganization Act. Under this Act, these people now are getting along very well. They 

Pendleton Round-Up Now Includes Indian Exhibit 

An important event at Pendleton, Oregon, is the annual round-up 
held each fall, which depicts the elements of life in the West, both his- 
toric ^and modern. Last year for the first time the round-up included an 
exhibit of Indian arts and crafts from the Northwest, the Southwest, and 
Alaska, arranged by the Superintendent of the Umatilla Agency. The pur- 
pose of the exhibit was to awaken public interest and encourage the growth 
of arts and crafts as home industries on the Umatilla Reservation. Sales 
of articles displayed at the round-up were a good indication that this pur- 
pose will not be too difficult to accomplish. 

Several Umatilla Indian women displayed ceremonial robes, Indian 
"suitcases", warrior regalia, cornhusk bags and wampum that have become 
heirlooms in their families. Costumes that were actually worn by Indian 
chiefs and warriors in colonial days held the attention of many visitors, 
who found themselves picturing the meetings of the frontiersmen with these 
proud and resplendent Indians. 

In a "live" exhibit, Indian women from the Umatilla Reservation 
at Pendleton demonstrated their special skills in tanning hides, prepar- 
ing roots, making cornhusk bags, doing beadwork, and making gloveB and 
moccasins of buckskin or elkskin. 

Umatilla exhibitors were awarded prizes based on workmanship, 
the use of ancient patterns, skills in using sinew thread, and the use of 
vegetable dyes for baskets. Relics were judged for variety and antiquity. 

A separate exhibit of the art of the Southwest Indians included 
Navajo rugs and silver; Pueblo ceremonial kilts and belts made by students 
at the Santa Fe Indian School, and Pueblo pottery; and paintings by In- 
dian artists. 

Indian art will undoubtedly be included in future Pendleton round- 
ups, for the Umatilla exhibit added something that is an integral part of 
both the past and the present of the West. 

A Tribute To Indian Culture 

In The Dakota Farmer. January 25, George F. Will writes "A Tribute 
to Indian Culture," in which he says: "I think that when we white people 
become really acquainted with our native land to the same extent and in the 
same way that our red predecessors were, much of the difficulties that we 
have today will disappear. " 


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